## Python Fundamentals

This lecture series contains videos, study materials and quizzes related to the following topics. Python character set Tokens and its types The basic process to follow the lecture series is. 1- First watch video 2- Read the topic 3- Finally, take the quiz 4- If any problem or error in lecture series comment Things to … Read more Python Fundamentals

## File Handling in Python

File Handling in Python What happens when you run a program and input some data to be processed. You get result and if you again run your program your previous data are lost. Since Random Access Memory (RAM) is volatile and it frees the memory when the program stops. To solve this problem you can … Read more File Handling in Python

## Lambda Function in Python

In Python, lambda keyword is used to create anonymous function in Python. User defined functions in Python are defined using def keyword. However, anonymous functions in Python are defined using lambda keyword. The syntax of anonymous function is afun=lambda parameters : expression Lambda function expression must be in a single line expression. Examples are- Sum … Read more Lambda Function in Python

## Chi Square Distribution

Chi Square Distribution Chi square variate is a square of a normal variate having 1 degree of freedom and  chi square distribution is a special case of Gamma distribution. If X is following normal distribution N(μ, σ) then Z=((X-μ)/σ)2 is a chi-square variate with 1 degree of freedom. The generalized form of chi-square variate is … Read more Chi Square Distribution

## Gamma Function and Gamma Probability Density Function

Gamma function and Gamma Probability Distribution Gamma function and Gamma probability density both are very important concepts in mathematics and statistics. Furthermore, understanding Gamma function and Gamma probability density helps to understand chi-square distribution which plays very important role in machine learning. Especially, in Decision Tree Learning Chi-Square distribution used. In this post, I will … Read more Gamma Function and Gamma Probability Density Function

## Improper Integrals

Improper Integrals In improper integral, either upper limit or lower limit tends to -∞ or ∞. Furthermore, both integrals may approach to infinity one negative infinity -∞ and other is ∞. Examples of improper integrals are

## Linear Programming Problem Solution in Python

Linear Programming Problem The problem of formulating an objective function and constraints an establishing relationship between variables is called a programming problem (LPP). If objective function and constraints are linear then the problem is called linear programming problem. Example- Sometimes, you come across the situation when you need to optimize your algorithm. If you can … Read more Linear Programming Problem Solution in Python

## Nested Lists in Python

Nested Lists in Python List in Python is a powerful data structure and it allows arbitrary numbers of nested lists in Python.  However, problems you will face to access them using loops. In this post, I have explained how to access nested list of elements. Suppose you have a nested list a=[3,5,8,4,15,34,[5,8,[-4,-8],9,3], 8,9,[6,9],12,7]. To understand … Read more Nested Lists in Python

## Principal Component Analysis(PCA)

Principal Component Analysis(PCA) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is an unsupervised machine learning feature reduction technique for high-dimensional and correlated data sets. Images and text documents have high dimensional data sets which requires unnecessary computation power and storage. Basic goal of PCA is to select features which have high variance. High variance of a feature indicates … Read more Principal Component Analysis(PCA)

## Insertion Sort in Python

Insertion Sort in Python Insertion sort examine the previously sorted sub-array and insert an element at its proper position. If you have an array a, a, a, a,……….a[n]. Then in insertion sort a trivially sorted sub-array. Again compare a to a and if a> a exchange it. Now sub-array a,a is sorted again compare a … Read more Insertion Sort in Python